The technical part of the stocktake on the pre-2020 implementation and ambition kicked off on 5 Dec. at the ongoing climate talks under the UNFCCC in Katowice, Poland.
It is the first of the two stocktakes that was mandated by 23rd session of the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC (COP23) last year, and the second stocktake will take place at COP25 at the end of 2019. Ben Garside, a correspondent from Carbon Pulse moderated the two session plenary which consisted of the “Mitigation Efforts up to 2020,” followed by “Supporting enhanced implementation and ambition of climate efforts up to 2020.”
During their interventions at the session, developing countries led by India, China, and Brazil expressed concerns over the pre-2020 ambition gap of developed countries, both in terms of emissions reductions needed and over the finance gap. India said that these gaps had to be closed by developed countries and must be taken into account during the 2023 global stocktake process under the Paris Agreement.
Adam Guibourgé‐Czetwertyński, the Chief Negotiator of the COP 24 Presidency opened the session by stating that “Parties shared the view at COP23 that the pre-2020 implementation and action should be continue and we should have a solid foundation for enhanced post-2020 action”. He added that the purpose of the stocktake was to facilitate the consideration of the efforts of Parties in relation to the pre-2020 period. This informed that this first part of the session will be followed by a high-level stocktake on the 10th Dec next week. He also said that he “recalled that in decision 1/CP.23 an invitation was made to Parties to submit additional information on progress in implementing decision 1/CP.21 and enhanced action prior to 2020 and that based on these submissions, the Secretariat has prepared a synthesis report which is also an additional, valuable input for the stocktake”.
Thelma Krug, Vice‐Chair, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that the IPCC report highlighted the connection between limiting global warming to 1.5°C and achieving sustainable development, and stressed that avowing the impacts form the 1.5°C temperature stabilisation would make it easier to achieve many aspects of sustainable development goals.
Emmanuel Dlamini, Chair of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) said that International Assessment and Review process aimed at promoting comparability of efforts among all developed countries with their quantified emissions, limitations and reduction targets. He said that the review of six Annex 1 Parties; the European Union, Canada, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and France showed that most Parties have made very good progress towards decoupling their GHG emissions from economic growth and that in general, they were on track in achieving their 2020 targets. He also encouraged Parties to produce their reports and submit them so that they can analysed to get a better picture on where we are and what Parties are doing and how we can move forward in terms of raising ambition.
Paul Watkinson, Chair of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) said that SBSTA is implementing a platform to work with local communities and indigenous people, where their knowledge, practices, technology and efforts can benefit mitigation and adaptation efforts. In addition, SBSTA and SBI are working together in many areas including areas where there is a mix of mitigation and adaptation actions such as in agriculture. Work also includes a forum on the impacts of implementation of response measures – on how policies affect the Parties or make it difficult to implement policies, said the SBSTA Chair. Overcoming some of these challenges by integrating the social challenges was very important for Parties in trying to implement policies in the field of mitigation, he said further.
Piotr Dombrowicki, Co‐Chair, Executive Board, Clean Development Mechanism stated that the report “Achievements of the Clean Development Mechanism: Harnessing Incentive for Climate Action (2001- 2018)” released recently highlighted that since 2001, over 140 Parties had engaged in the CDM activities, resulting in approximately half a billion tonnes of carbon emissions reduction after the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and there were still more demands for such projects.
Tomasz Chruszczow, the Special Envoy for Climate Change and High‐level Champion for COP 24 said that what Parties need in order to be more ambitious is good transparency rules and reporting. The rules adopted here are going to be enable higher ambition, he said, referring to the Paris Agreement Work Programme.
During the interventions by Parties, India stated that the pre-2020 commitment has been relegated to the background and lagging very much behind. Apart from the piecemeal and incomplete report of the Secretariat, the amount of financial resources mobilised are inadequate and does not seem likely that we could be reaching the $100 billion per year by 2020. There is a need to make sure that developed countries fulfil their pre-2020 commitments and the gap must be closed. It said that there is need for clarity that these unmet gaps in mitigation and adaptation support must be carried over to the post-2020 time frame and feed into the global stocktake. In regard to The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol for the second commitment period to be effective, India said that 22 more ratifications were needed for its entry into force and stressed that this would be a powerful indication of ambition to the rest of the world.
China echoed India’s sentiments on the remaining commitment gaps pre-2020, particularly so when the Doha Amendment has yet to be ratified with two years left to 2020. In addition, it said that more financial support was needed for adaptation. It also suggested that the report on the stocktake on pre-2020 implementation and ambition be published at the same time as the report on the Tanaloa Dialogue.
Brazil stated that in previous COPs, Parties had agreed that developed countries are to take the lead in climate actions and avoid the shifting of costs to the post-2020 period, including the ratification of the Doha Amendment and added further that the emissions reduction gaps that have not been met must rectified on an urgent basis.
Maldives, speaking for the Alliance of Small Island States, emphasised that there was no time to waste. Developed countries need to take the lead and they need to fulfil their commitments under Kyoto Protocol. All countries would need to play their role based on their capacity and it added further on the importance of finance and technology transfer – calling for a renewed effort in mobilization $100billion to support developing countries.
In session two of the plenary, the Pa Ousman Jarju, Director of Country Programming, Green Climate Fund (GCF) presented on overview of the Fund’s progress report in the context of funding committed, disbursed, including the value of the various approved projects, proposals and payments. He said that the mitigation impact of the projects can achieve 1.43 billon tonnes of CO2 equivalent emission reductions, including an adaptation impact of helping 272 million beneficiaries. He also informed that 70% of the adaptation funding went to support Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Small Island Developing States (SIDs) and Africa. There is still however a demand for climate resilience technology transfer and capacity building needs, and developing countries reporting needs to be addressed.
Gustavo Fonseca, Director of Programs, Global Environment Facility stated that with the allocation of $530 million dollars to fulfil its mandate in helping developing countries access climate fund, the GEF managed to make progress in all areas and strengthen resilience at national and local level. A total of 63 countries and including LDC and SIDS have benefitted from scalable projects that are worth $10million each. He emphasised the importance of direct access which helps strengthen local implementation and adaptation.
Jukka Uosukainen, Director, Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) stated that there have been 79 countries receiving technology assistance through 137 projects. This provided countries with decision-making tools, technical feasibility studies, sectoral roadmaps; including supporting countries in laws and policies for technology transfer and development. Although the CTCN is still at an early stage in country intervention, as much as 10 million tonnes of emissions can be saved through these interventions if successful, he said further. He added further that the CTCN has authorised more than 100 requests and although there is no timeline for receiving requests from developing countries, these requests need to go through the national focal points. He added further that the lesson learned is that it is important that international cutting age technology is tied to local experts.
Marzena Chodor, Co‐Chair of the Paris Committee on Capacity‐Building, stated that there has been engagement with non-Parties on capacity building through online portal, collaboration with stakeholders through social media a pilot exercise to identify gaps in NDC implementation.
Thiago De Araujo Mendes, Chair of the Consultative Group of Experts shared that it would have been its 20th anniversary next year and so far it has assisted 253 national communications. The allocated $700,000 annual budget had managed to create a robust capacity building material translated in 5 languages adding that the CGE has also trained more than 2000 people in the last 5 years and helped countries to submit updates in their Biennial Reports. It was also looking into interesting ways to enhance ambition in the forestry sector.
The European Union stated that it remained fully engaged in the pre-2020 goals as time was of essence. To achieve long term goals of PA, it said that it had exceeded its pre-2020 targets that it had ratified the Doha Amendment and remained committed to pre-2020 financing.
Grenada stated that the key issue was the question of ambition and said that increasing ambition was needed, citing the IPCC report which pointed out that emissions have to be reduced emissions by 45% by 2030. Developed countries need to take the lead and all Parties have to contribute and broaden their vision beyond focusing on pre-2020 actions, it added. Enhanced mitigation and adaptation need financial and technological support for developing countries, it said further.
Canada agreed that more needs to be done urgently as highlighted by IPCC and said that it has put a price on carbon and invested in green infrastructure and was delivering on its financial mobilization commitment by way of multiplying finance to the GCF and other multilateral banks.
Brazil stated that adequate and predictable finance is required to enhance their climate actions. The developed countries must mobilize $100 billion per year by 2020 and also support and enhance post-2020 ambition.
China echoed Brazil and stated that there were significant gaps in pre-2020 commitments. It highlighted that there were a considerable number of nationally determined mitigation action projects from developing countries but only 80 received support, and called for more transparent information on how this target is being achieved. It also stressed the important work of the CGE to developing countries.